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Showing posts from August, 2011

Installation of Webserver in UBUNTU

1. Introduction · We’re going to install the Ubuntu Server operating system. · We’re going to install an OpenSSH server. This allows you to administer your server from remote computers. · A LAMP (Linux, Apache, MySQL, and PHP) stack is going to be installed. · In order to follow this tutorial, you’re going to need a few items: · A computer to use as your server. It doesn’t need to be powerful; as long as it’s not ancient, it’ll work fine. · A CD burner and a blank CD. These are so that you can burn Ubuntu to a disk in order to install it. 2. Download Ubuntu Server Now you need to burn the ISO (the file that you downloaded) to a blank CD 3. Install Ubuntu Server Now that you’ve downloaded and burned the ISO, let’s get Ubuntu installed on your server. Put the disk in the drive, and boot from the CD. In most modern computers, this will happen by default if a disk is in the drive when you turn it on. If it doesn’t, then you


·          Generic Attribute Registration Protocol (GARP) VLAN Registration Protocol (GVRP) is an application defined in the IEEE 802.1Q standard that allows for the control of VLANs. ·          GVRP runs only on 802.1Q trunk links. ·          GVRP prunes trunk links so that only active VLANs will be sent across trunk connections. ·          GVRP expects to hear join messages from the switches before it will add a VLAN to the trunk. ·          GVRP updates and hold timers can be altered. ·          GVRP ports run in various modes to control how they will prune VLANs. ·          GVRP can be configured to dynamically add and manage VLANS to the VLAN database for trunking purposes. Configuring GVRP GVRP is supported only on COS switches. GVRP will run only on 802.1Q trunk ports and is used primarily to prune traffic from VLANs that does not need to be passed between trunking switches. Use the following steps to configure GVRP. 1.       Enable GVRP globally: COS set gvrp enable

C. Trunking

·          VLANs are local to each switch's database, and VLAN information is not passed between switches. ·          Trunk links provide VLAN identification for frames traveling between switches. ·          Cisco switches have two Ethernet trunking mechanisms: ISL and IEEE 802.1Q. ·          Certain types of switches can negotiate trunk links. ·          Trunks carry traffic from all VLANs to and from the switch by default but can be configured to carry only specified VLAN traffic. ·          Trunk links must be configured to allow trunking on each end of the link. Enabling Trunking Trunk links are required to pass VLAN information between switches. A port on a Cisco switch is either an access port or a trunk port. Access ports belong to a single VLAN and do not provide any identifying marks on the frames that are passed between switches. Access ports also carry traffic that comes from only the VLAN assigned to the port. A trunk port is by default a member of all the VLANs that

B. VLAN Port Assignments

·          VLANs are assigned to individual switch ports. ·          Ports can be statically assigned to a single VLAN or dynamically assigned to a single VLAN. ·          All ports are assigned to VLAN 1 by default ·          Ports are active only if they are assigned to VLANs that exist on the switch. ·          Static port assignments are performed by the administrator and do not change unless modified by the administrator, whether the VLAN exists on the switch or not. ·          Dynamic VLANs are assigned to a port based on the MAC address of the device plugged into a port. ·          Dynamic VLAN configuration requires a VLAN Membership Policy Server (VMPS) client, server, and database to operate properly. Configuring Static VLANs On a Cisco switch, ports are assigned to a single VLAN. These ports are referred to as access ports and provide a connection for end users or node devices, such as a router or server. By default all devices are assigned to VLAN 1, known as the default

A: VLAN Configuration

·          VLANs are broadcast domains defined within switches to allow control of broadcast, multicast, unicast, and unknown unicast within a Layer 2 device. ·          VLANs are defined on a switch in an internal database known as the VLAN Trunking Protocol (VTP) database . After a VLAN has been created, ports are assigned to the VLAN. ·          VLANs are assigned numbers for identification within and between switches. Cisco switches have two ranges of VLANs, the normal range and extended range . ·          VLANs have a variety of configurable parameters, including name, type, and state. ·          Several VLANs are reserved, and some can be used for internal purposes within the switch. Creation of an Ethernet VLAN VLANs are created on Layer 2 switches to control broadcasts and enforce the use of a Layer 3 device for communications. Each VLAN is created in the local switch's database for use. If a VLAN is not known to a switch, that switch cannot transfer traffic across any