Friday, 30 September 2011

How to send email from the Linux command line


First run a quick test to make sure the “sendmail” application is installed and working correctly. Execute the following command, replacing “” with your e-mail address.

# mail -s “Hello ”

Hit the return key and you will come to a new line. Enter the text “This is a test from my server”. Follow up the text by hitting the return key again. Then hit the key combination of Control+D to continue. The command prompt will ask you if you want to mark a copy of the mail to any other address, hit Control+D again. Check your mailbox. This command will send out a mail to the email id mentioned with the subject, “Hello”.

# echo “This will go into the body of the mail.”
mail -s “Hello ”

And if you want mail to read the content from a file:

#mail -s “Hello ” < /home/user/application.log

Some other useful options in the mail command are:

-s subject (The subject of the mail)
-c email-address (Mark a copy to this “email-address”, or CC)
-b email-address (Mark a blind carbon copy to this “email-address”, or BCC)

Thursday, 29 September 2011

Wednesday, 28 September 2011

iSCSI initiator configuration in RedHat Enterprise Linux 5

[root@rhel5 ~]# rpm -ivh /tmp/iscsi-initiator-utils- Preparing... ########################################### [100%] 1:iscsi-initiator-utils ########################################### [100%] [root@rhel5 ~]# [root@rhel5 ~]#rpm -qa | grep iscsi iscsi-initiator-utils- [root@rhel5 ~]# rpm -qi iscsi-initiator-utils- Name : iscsi-initiator-utils Relocations: (not relocatable) Version : Vendor: Red Hat, Inc. Release : 0.16.el5 Build Date: Tue 09 Mar 2010 09:16:29 PM CET Install Date: Wed 16 Feb 2011 11:34:03 AM CET Build Host: Group : System Environment/Daemons Source RPM: iscsi-initiator-utils- Size : 1960412 License: GPL Signature : DSA/SHA1, Wed 10 Mar 2010 04:26:37 PM CET, Key ID 5326810137017186 Packager : Red Hat, Inc. <> URL : Summary : iSCSI daemon and utility programs Description : The iscsi package provides the server daemon for the iSCSI protocol, as well as the utility programs used to manage it. iSCSI is a protocol for distributed disk access using SCSI commands sent over Internet Protocol networks

[root@rhel5 ~]# chkconfig iscsi on [root@rhel5 ~]# chkconfig iscsid on [root@rhel5 ~]# [root@rhel5 ~]# chkconfig --list | grep iscsi iscsi 0:off 1:off 2:on 3:on 4:on 5:on 6:off iscsid 0:off 1:off 2:on 3:on 4:on 5:on 6:off
[root@rhel5 ~]# service iscsi start iscsid is stopped Starting iSCSI daemon: [ OK ] [ OK ] Setting up iSCSI targets: iscsiadm: No records found! [ OK ] [root@rhel5 ~]# [root@rhel5 ~]# service iscsi status iscsid (pid 14170) is running...
[root@cl-node1 ~]# cat /etc/iscsi/initiatorname.iscsi
[root@rhel5 ~]# iscsiadm -m discovery -t sendtargets -p,1
[root@rhel5 ~]# service iscsi restart Stopping iSCSI daemon: iscsid dead but pid file exists [ OK ] Starting iSCSI daemon: [ OK ] [ OK ] Setting up iSCSI targets: Logging in to [iface: default, target:, portal:,3260] Login to [iface: default, target:, portal:,3260]: successful [ OK ]
[root@rhel5 ~]# lsscsi [0:0:0:0] disk VMware, VMware Virtual S 1.0 /dev/sda [2:0:0:0] disk LEFTHAND iSCSIDisk 9000 /dev/sdb [root@rhel5 ~]# [root@rhel5 ~]# fdisk -l /dev/sdb Disk /dev/sdb: 156.7 GB, 156766306304 bytes 255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 19059 cylinders Units = cylinders of 16065 * 512 = 8225280 bytes Disk /dev/sdb doesn't contain a valid partition table

Tuesday, 27 September 2011

Configure a New Global Catalog

To configure a Windows 2000/2003 Domain Controller as a GC server, perform the following steps:
Start the Microsoft Management Console (MMC) Active Directory Sites and Services Manager. (From the Start menu, select Programs, Administrative Tools, Active Directory Sites and Services Manager).
Select the Sites branch.
Select the site that owns the server, and expand the Servers branch.
Select the server you want to configure.
Right-click NTDS Settings, and select Properties.

Select or clear the Global Catalog Server checkbox, which the Screen shows.

Click Apply, OK.

You must allow for the GC to replicate itself throughout the forest. This process might take anywhere between 10-15 minutes to even several days, all depending on your AD infrastructure.

Microsoft Hyper-V will not boot virtual SCSI devices

"Each IDE controller can have two devices. You can not boot from a SCSI controller. This means an IDE disk will be required. The boot disk will be IDE controller 0 Device 0. If you want a CDROM it will consume an IDE device slot." Source: MSDN Blog

The hypervisor that runs the virtual BIOS does not support booting from a SCSI controller, today, but it does support the following boot devices:
Legacy Network Adapter

The root reason is SCSI in a synthetic device and there is no VMBUS until after boot.

One might think that this shouldn't be a problem, after all, the virtual machines can still boot from regular IDE-based virtual disks. So where's the catch?

The main problem is related to the fact that in Virtual Server, virtual SCSI controllers have major performance benefits over virtual IDE controllers. In Virtual Server, it is recommended to attach the Virtual Disks to one or more SCSI controllers to improve disk input/output (I/O) performance. IDE is limited to one transaction at a time, regardless of whether the bus is physical or virtual. This means that a virtual machine with two virtual hard disks attached to the IDE adapter is limited to a single transaction for both disks. By contrast, a SCSI controllers allows for multiple simultaneous transactions, which provides better performance than disks attached to the IDE controllers.

This performance bottleneck of virtual IDE and technical limitations of virtual SCSI will oblige customers to have two virtual disks for each VM. A configuration hard to setup in P2V migration scenarios, and hard to manage on large scale deployments.

Note that since Hyper-V is still in Beta phase, all numbers are subject to change as are the behaviors. So there might be hope, after all…

Note: Under Virtual Server 2005, contrary to common sense, the performance of emulated SCSI controllers is slower than that of emulated IDE controllers. The reason for this is that the SCSI controller is a lot more complicated to emulate than the IDE controller. However, this changes once you have Virtual Machine Additions installed, because the Virtual Machine Additions install an accelerated SCSI driver. Once this driver is installed the performance of the emulated SCSI controllers is significantly faster than emulated IDE controllers.

Monday, 26 September 2011

Rename Windows Server 2008 Domain Controllers

The command

In order to rename a DC you will need the NETDOM command. In Windows Server 2008, this is part of the operating system, and not a separate download as in previous versions. By using the NETDOM command, you ensure that there is little or no disturbance for the domain and client operations.

Renaming a domain controller requires that you first provide a FQDN as a new computer name for the domain controller. All of the computer accounts for the domain controller must contain the updated SPN attribute and all the authoritative DNS servers for the domain name must contain the host (A) resource record for the new computer name. Both the old and new computer names are maintained until you remove the old computer name. This ensures that there will be no interruption in the ability of clients to locate or authenticate to the renamed domain controller, except when the domain controller is restarted.

Important: To rename a domain controller using the NETDOM command, the domain functional level must be set to at least Windows Server 2003.

The bad news: As usual, you will need to reboot the renamed DC.

The good news: You don't have to sit near the DC you're renaming. You can accomplish it from any computer that has the NETDOM command, and if you have the appropriate user credentials.

You must be a member of the Domain Admins group.

To rename a DC with the name from KUKU-SERVER in the PETRI.LOCAL domain to DC-SERVER follow the next steps:

1. Open Command Prompt and type: NETDOM computername KUKU-SERVER.PETRI.LOCAL /add:DC-SERVER.PETRI.LOCAL

This command will update the service principal name (SPN) attributes in Active Directory for this computer account, and register DNS resource records for the new computer name. The SPN value of the computer account must be replicated to all DCs for the domain, and the DNS resource records for the new computer name must be distributed to all the authoritative DNS servers for the domain name. If the updates and registrations have not occurred prior to removing the old computer name, then some clients may be unable to locate this computer using the new or old name. Therefore, it's very important to wait till the Active Directory replication finishes a replication cycle. You can check that by using tools such as REPADMIN and REPLMON.

You can verify the new name was indeed added to the computer object by viewing it through ADSIEDIT.MSC (which, for Windows Server 2008, is installed by default). Navigate to the computer object and right-click it. Select Properties:

Scroll down in the list of available attributes till you reach the attribute called msDS-AdditionalDnsHostName.

2. Ensure the computer account updates and DNS registrations are completed, then type: NETDOM computername KUKU-SERVER.PETRI.LOCAL /makeprimary:DC-SERVER.PETRI.LOCAL

Again, you can inspect the change with ADSIEDIT.MSC. Scroll down in the list of available attributes for the computer object (notice how the server now appears with the new name) till you reach the attribute called msDS-AdditionalDnsHostName.

Notice that the old name should appear in the attribute's properties.

3. Restart the computer.

4. From the command prompt, type: NETDOM computername DC-SERVER.PETRI.LOCAL /remove:KUKU-SERVER.PETRI.LOCAL

5. Make sure that the changes have successfully been replicated to all the DCs.

Installing the Virtual SCSI Controller Driver for Virtual Server 2005 on Windows Server 2008

You can install the virtual SCSI controller driver during the installation of the guest operating system by performing the following steps:

Description and screenshots where made while installing Windows Server 2008 on Virtual Server 2005 R2 SP1, however the same instructions apply to the installation of Windows Vista. For Windows 2000/2003/XP you will need to press the F6 key during the text phase of the installation process, then press "S" to specify additional drivers, and then provide the driver floppy image.

1. Begin the installation by inserting the appropriate Windows Server 2008 installation media into your DVD drive.

2. Continue with the installation process, until you reach the point where you're prompted for the location of the system partition. Click on the Load Driver link.

3. Now you need to load the driver files as a virtual floppy image. The image's name is "SCSI Shunt Driver.vfd", and it is located in the C:\Program Files\Microsoft Virtual Server\Virtual Machine Additions folder. You can mount it by using VMRC Plus (read my "Manage Virtual Server Machines with VMRC Plus", or from the Virtual Server administrative website. For this example I've used VMRC Plus.

Also see » Configure and customize SharePoint Workspace 2010

In the VMRC Plus Console Manager click on Media > Load Floppy Disk Image.

Navigate to the C:\Program Files\Microsoft Virtual Server\Virtual Machine Additions folder and select the "SCSI Shunt Driver.vfd" driver.

If you want, you can do the same by right-clicking on the VM's name in the main VMRC Plus window, then selecting Settings.

Now navigate to the C:\Program Files\Microsoft Virtual Server\Virtual Machine Additions folder and select the "SCSI Shunt Driver.vfd" driver.

Click Ok.

4. Back in the installation window, click on Browse.

5. Navigate to the virtual floppy drive's root folder, then expand the Vista subfolder.

Note: For other operating systems select the right subfolder.

Press Ok.

6. After a few seconds the driver's name will appear on the list. Click Next.

7. The driver will load.

8. In the "Where do you want to install Windows", if you're installing the server on a regular IDE hard disk, click to select the first disk, usually Disk 0, and click Next.

9. If you must, you can also click Drive Options and manually create a partition on the destination hard disk.

10. Continue the installation as usual, and when it's done the server will automatically reboot.

Sunday, 25 September 2011

Windows 2003 Domain Rename

This functionality is not available in Microsoft Windows 2000 Server family. 

Microsoft Windows Server 2003 family provides the capability to rename domains in an Active Directory forest after the forest structure is in place. The structure of an Active Directory forest is the result of the order in which you create domains and the hierarchical names of those domains. Beginning with the forest root domain, all child domains derive their distinguished names and default DNS names from the forest root domain name. The same is true of every additional tree in the forest. The way to change the hierarchical structure of an existing domain tree is to rename the domains. For example, you can rename a child domain to have a different parent, or rename a child domain to be a new tree-root domain. In each case, you reposition an existing domain to create a different domain-tree structure. Alternatively, you can rename domains without affecting the structure. For example, if you rename a root domain, the names of all child domains below it are also changed, but you have not created a different domain-tree structure.
In Windows Server 2003, the goal of the domain rename functionality is to ensure a supported method to rename domains when necessary; it is not intended to make domain rename a routine operation. Thus, although renaming domains is possible in Windows Server 2003, the process is complex and should not be undertaken lightly.

Constraints to Restructuring Domains in a Windows 2000 Forest

The restructuring capabilities in a Windows Server 2003 forest provide solutions to problems that are not addressed in Windows 2000 Server family. In a Windows 2000 forest, renaming domains is essentially not possible after the forest structure is in place without moving domain contents or recreating them. The constraints associated with making domain name changes or domain-tree restructuring in Windows 2000 Active Directory are prohibitive.
In a Windows 2000 forest, you cannot:
  • Change the DNS name or the NetBIOS name of a domain. Although you cannot rename a domain, you can achieve the same results by moving its contents into a new domain that has the name you want the existing domain to have. (Active Directory Object Manager (MoveTree) in the Windows 2000 Server family Support Tools can be used to move directory objects between domains.)
  • Move a domain within a forest in a single operation. As above, you can clone items in and move items from a domain, but you cannot move the entire domain itself within a forest.
  • Split a domain into two domains in a single operation. To split a domain, you must create a new domain and then move appropriate users and resources from the existing domain into the new domain.
  • Merge two domains into a single domain in a single operation. To merge domains, you must move all the contents from one of the domains into the other and then demote all domain controllers in the empty domain and decommission it.
Thus, in a Windows 2000 forest, significant administrative overhead is associated with performing such manual move operations to achieve the domain-tree restructuring or renaming one or more domains.
Windows Server 2003 family provides tools with which you can safely rename domains to restructure a Windows 2003 forest. When making a decision about whether to restructure an existing Windows Server 2003 forest, be sure to consider what you cannot do with forest restructuring. Although a Windows 2003 forest has forest restructuring capability, certain types of structural changes are not supported.
In a Windows Server 2003 forest, you cannot:
  • Change which domain is the forest root domain. Changing the DNS or the NetBIOS name of the forest root domain, or both, is supported.
  • Drop domains from the forest or add domains to the forest. The number of domains in the forest before and after the rename/restructure operation must remain the same.
  • Rename a domain with the same name that another domain gave up in a single forest restructure operation.

Setting Virtual Machine Boot Options in Windows 2008 Hyper-V

One of the problems with server virtualization is that when you virtualize your servers, you are essentially putting all of your eggs into one basket. Imagine for instance that a physical server that is hosting a number of virtual machines drops offline for whatever reason. None of the virtual machines hosted by that server will be available until the host operating system is rebooted, and all of the virtual servers are booted. Fortunately, there are some things that you can make the process of bringing everything back online a lot less painful.
Automatic Start Action

Even if your host operating system isn’t normally prone to failure, it’s worth taking a look at Hyper-V’s automatic startup options for virtual machines. It’s inevitable that you will eventually have to reboot your host operating system as a part of the match management process. When those reboots do occur, it’s nice not to have to manually boot every single virtual machine that’s hosted by that server individually.

This is where the automatic start actions come into play. Automatic start actions are set individually for each virtual machine. You can access the automatic start actions by opening the Hyper-V Manager Console, right clicking on a virtual server, and choosing the Settings command from the shortcut menu. When you do, Windows will display the settings for the selected virtual machine. Toward the bottom of the settings list is an option called Automatic Start Action. You can see what this option looks like in Figure A.

Hyper-V offers you a variety of automatic startup options for your virtual machines.

As you can see in the figure, the automatic start options are divided into two separate sections. The first of these sections has to do with how the virtual machine will behave when the host operating system starts. You have the option of doing nothing (not automatically booting the virtual machine), or of automatically starting the virtual machine when the host operating system starts. Another option is to base the startup behavior on whether or not the virtual machine was running at the time when the host operating system was shut down. Hyper-V’s default behavior is to automatically boot any virtual machines that were previously running, and to do nothing for virtual machines that were not running when the server was shut down.

The other option found in the Automatic Startup Action section is the Automatic Start Delay option. Initially, delaying the boot process may sound like a bad thing, but in a Hyper-V environment, it really isn’t.

Remember that the whole concept behind server virtualization is that all of your virtual machines and your host operating system share a limited pool of server resources. If all of your virtual machines boot simultaneously, the machines will be competing for disk throughput and for CPU resources. This tends to greatly slow the boot process.

Adding a delay to the boot process allows you to make sure that only one virtual server boots at a time. It also gives you the option of making sure that virtual machines boot in a specific order. For example, if your server hosts an application server and a domain controller / DNS server, then you probably need to make sure that the domain controller and DNS services are available before the application server boots. Adding a delay to the application server would allow you to make sure that happens.
Automatic Stop Actions

It’s a little bit off topic, but I wanted to mention that just as Hyper-V allows you to set automatic start actions, you can also set automatic stop actions. As you can see in Figure B, you have the option of saving the virtual machine’s state or of shutting down the virtual machine automatically when the host operating system is shut down.

Hyper-V also offers automatic stop options.

This does a couple of things for you. First, it ensures that virtual servers are shut down gracefully whenever you need to reboot the host operating system (assuming that you don’t choose the Turn Off the Virtual Machine option). Second, it makes the process of rebooting the host operating system easier, because as long as you have set the automatic stop actions ahead of time, you don’t have to worry about taking the time to manually shut down each individual virtual machine.

Saturday, 24 September 2011

How to Restore Windows Server 2003 Active Directory

There is an option to restore Active Directory objects that have been deleted and are now in a phase called "tombstone".
You can use one of the three methods to restore Active Directory from backup media: Primary Restore, Normal Restore (i.e. Non Authoritative), and Authoritative Restore.

  • Primary Restore: This method rebuilds the first domain controller in a domain when there is no other way to rebuild the domain. Perform a primary restore only when all the domain controllers in the domain are lost, and you want to rebuild the domain from the backup. Members of the Administrators group can perform the primary restore on local computer. On a domain controller, only members of the Domain Admins group can perform this restore.

  • Normal Restore: This method reinstates the Active Directory data to the state before the backup, and then updates the data through the normal replication process. Perform a normal restore for a single domain controller to a previously known good state.

  • Authoritative Restore: You perform this method in tandem with a normal restore. An authoritative restore marks specific data as current and prevents the replication from overwriting that data. The authoritative data is then replicated through the domain. Perform an authoritative restore for individual object in a domain that has multiple domain controllers. When you perform an authoritative restore, you lose all changes to the restore object that occurred after the backup. You need to use the NTDSUTIL command line utility to perform an authoritative restore. You need to use it in order to mark Active Directory objects as authoritative, so that they receive a higher version recently changed data on other domain controllers does not overwrite System State data during replication.

  • For example, if you inadvertently delete or modify objects in Active Directory, and those objects were thereafter replicated to other DCs, you will need to authoritatively restore those objects so they are replicated or distributed to the other servers. If you do not authoritatively restore the objects, they will never get replicated or distributed to your other servers because they will appear to be older than the objects currently on your other DCs. Using the NTDSUTIL utility to mark objects for authoritative restore ensures that the data you want to restore gets replicated or distributed throughout your organization.

    Expanding the Boot Volume of a Windows Server 2008 Virtual Machine

    Expanding the Boot Volume

    To demonstrate how this works, I installed Windows Server 2008 as a virtual machine inside VMware ESXi 4.0. During the creation of the VM the boot partition size was set at 20 GB, which in Windows Server 2008 might just be a bit to small.

    To expand it, we need to expand the virtual disk first. This is a simple process, all it needs is a couple of mouse clicks and you're set.

    In the vSphere Client, right click the virtual machine and select Edit Settings

    Next, you need to find the virtual disk and edit it's size from 20 GB to 30 GB, or any other size you might want, click OK and let it weave it's magic.

    The disk should now be expanded, but Windows Server 2008 still doesn't recognize the new available space. This is where the Disk Manager enters the picture.

    Navigate the Start Menu and find Server Manager. Find the Storage node, expand it and select Disk Management

    Right click Disk Management and use either Refresh or Rescan Disks, both should work just fine. When the refresh is finished, you should see the newly added extra 10 GB as unallocated space on the disk you expanded. In our case it's Disk 0, as thats the only virtual disk that is attached to this particular server.

    Right click the c:\ volume, and select Extend Volume and the "Extend Volume Wizard" should appear. This is pretty straight forward, but click next and you will be presented with a the tool that allows the volume expansion.

    By default, the wizard will select all available space in the Selected column, but you can tweak those settings if you like. When you have done a selection you're comfortable with, click Next and a summary screen will appear outlining the changes you have made. If you are satisfied with your choices, click Finish, if not select Back and redo your settings.

    Lean back and see that your boot drive has been extended to 30GB instead of 20GB, all without any downtime or interruption of service at all.

    Note that if this was a physical machine, and not a virtual one, it would be a bit harder to accomplish. It would require that you have available, unpartitioned space, on the physical boot drive. Normally that's not the case and you would still need third party tools to be able to repartition your boot drive to free up some space that you could expand your boot volume with.

    The Windows Server 2008 Disk Manager allows you to easily expand a boot volume, given that you have available unpartitioned space available to it. This great feature add-on in Windows Server 2008 might just prove invaluable to you down the line, especially in virtualized environments. The “Extend” feature only works when there is unallocated space available directly adjacent to the boot partition. That is too say, you cannot extend the system partition by shrinking others partition, you have to delete the partitions.

    Friday, 23 September 2011

    Configuring Virtual Networks With Hyper-V

    The Virtual Switch

    What really sets Hyper-V apart from Microsoft’s other virtualization products is that virtual machines perform much better because they can communicate with the server’s hardware directly rather than having to pass hardware requests through the host operating system (although there are some exceptions to this). Of course you can’t just bombard a network adapter with simultaneous traffic from multiple virtual machines. There has to be a way of managing the traffic. To get around this problem, Microsoft has introduced the concept of the virtual switch.
    To understand how this is possible, you have to realize that Hyper-V is not a Windows Server 2008 add-on, but rather is a part of the operating system. When you install the Hyper-V role, the hyper visor is placed “underneath” the Windows 2008 operating system. The existing operating system (known as the host operating system) is placed into something called the parent partition, and each guest operating system is placed into a separate child partition.
    To make this type of architecture possible, Microsoft had to unbind the host operating system’s TCP/IP stack from the server’s NIC. In doing so, they have created an additional layer of abstraction known as the virtual switch. The virtual switch is the only networking component that is bound to the physical network adapter. The parent partition and the child partitions use virtual network adapters (known as vNICs), which communicate with the virtual switch using Microsoft’s Virtual Network Switch Protocol.
    I realize that this description may be difficult to follow, so I have created the diagram shown in Figure A as a way of helping you to understand the architecture.

    Figure A This is what the virtual switch architecture looks like.

    Additional Virtual Switches

    Hyper-V allows you to create additional virtual switches beyond the one that I just talked about. To do so, open the Hyper-V Manager and then click on the Virtual Network Manager link. Upon doing so, Windows will display the Virtual Network Manager screen,  .

     The Virtual Network Manager allows you to create additional virtual switches.
    If you look at the figure above, you can see that the default virtual switch is bound to my physical network adapter. You also have the option of creating a new virtual network, which is the same as creating a new virtual switch. As you can see in the figure, there are three different types of virtual networks that you can create.
    Your first option is to create an external virtual network. Doing so creates a virtual switch through which virtual machines can access your entire network, and even the Internet assuming that you have the necessary infrastructure in place.
    One thing that you do need to know about external virtual networks is that they must be bound to a physical network adapter. Additionally, each physical network adapter can only be used for a single virtual network. Therefore, if you are creating a secondary external virtual network then you're going to need a secondary NIC that you can bind the new external virtual network to.
    Your next option is to create an internal virtual switch. An internal virtual switch is not capable of accessing the yarn that, or even your private network as a whole. It serves primarily as a mechanism for allowing communications between the virtual machines that are hosted on the server. Additionally, an internal virtual network can facilitate communications between the host operating system and the guest operating systems that are running on it.
    Your third option is to create a private virtual network. A private virtual network can only be used to facilitate communications between the virtual machines that are hosted on the current server. Private virtual networks can not access the outside world, nor can they access the host operating system.


    In this article, I have explained that under normal circumstances the virtual machines that require access your network typically share a single NIC. I then went on to show you how Windows manages the communications for all of your virtual machines, and how you can create an external virtual network that takes advantage of additional NICs installed in your server.

    Creating and Managing Virtual Servers with Windows 2008 Server & Hyper-V

    Installing a Virtual Operating System

    Open Server Manager and then navigate through the console tree to Roles -> Hyper-V -> Microsoft Hyper-V Server. If this is the first time that you have used Hyper-V, then you will be prompted to accept Hyper-V License Agreement. Once you accept the license agreement, the various Hyper-V options will be made available to you.

    The first thing that you must do is to click on the Connect to Server link, located in the Actions pane. When you do, you will be prompted to select the computer that you want to connect to. Choose the Local Computer option, and click OK. You will now see the screen shown in Figure A.

    This is the main screen that you will use for managing virtual machines.

    Creating a New Virtual Server

    To create a new virtual server, click the New -> Virtual Machine options found in the Actions pane. When you do, Windows will launch the New Virtual Machine Wizard. The wizard’s initial screen explains that you can click Next to begin customizing a virtual machine, but that you also have the option of clicking Finish right now to create a virtual machine that uses the default values. For the purposes of this article, I will create a custom virtual machine so that you can see the options that are available to you.

    With that said, click Next and you will be prompted to enter a name and a location for the virtual machine that you are creating. I recommend using a descriptive name. The location is up to you, but if your server contains a striped RAID array, then that is a good location to choose for performance reasons.

    Click Next and you will be prompted to enter the amount of memory that is to be assigned to the new virtual machine. By default, new virtual machines are assigned 512 MB of RAM, but that isn’t really enough if you plan on running Windows Vista or Windows Server 2008. I would recommend 1 GB for Vista and 2 GB for Windows Server 2008 installations.

    Click Next, and the wizard will prompt you to choose which network adapter you want to use for the machine’s virtual network connection. As you may recall, when you installed Hyper-V, you were given the opportunity to select one or more network adapters to be used by virtual machines. This option allows you to pick from the network adapters that you previously selected. The idea is that you can use a different network adapter on each virtual machine if you want, so that no single network adapter becomes over burdened.

    When you have made your selection, click Next, and you will be prompted to choose the virtual hard drive that you want the machine to use, as shown in Figure B. As you can see in the figure, you can either create a new virtual hard drive, or you can use an existing one. Since there aren’t any existing virtual hard drives right now, we will have to create a new one. Windows defaults to creating a virtual hard drive that’s 127 MB in size, but you can create a drive of up to 2 TB if you want.

    You must specify the size of your new virtual hard drive.

    Click next, and you will be prompted to install an operating system on the new virtual machine. You have the option of installing an operating system later on, but you can also choose to install from a CD (or an .ISO file), a boot floppy, or from an installation server, as shown in Figure C.

    You can choose to install an operating system now.

    When you’ve made your choice, click Next. You will now see a summary of the options that you have created. If you have chosen to go ahead and install an operating system, then insert the operating system media, select the option to start the virtual machine, and click Finish. Windows will now launch the virtual machine and begin installing the operating system, as shown in Figure D.

    Windows will launch the new virtual machine and begin installing the guest operating system. And with that, we are done!

    Thursday, 22 September 2011

    Implementing Hyper-V in Windows Server 2008

    Perform a Clean Installation

    The first thing that I recommend doing is to perform a clean installation of Windows Server 2008. Server virtualization is extremely resource intensive, far more so than most other server applications, so I recommend using a clean Windows installation on a dedicated server.
    Installing the Hyper-V Role

    Now, log in using an account with local administrative privileges, and then open the Server manager. In case you aren’t familiar with the Server Manager, it’s the new tool that acts as a centralized management utility for Windows Server 2008. You can access it by entering the ServerManager.msc command at the server’s Run prompt.

    When Server Manager opens, right click on the Roles container, and then choose the Add Roles command from the resulting shortcut menu. Windows will now launch the Add Roles Wizard.

    Click Next to bypass the wizard’s Welcome screen and then you should see a screen similar to the one shown in Figure A, asking you which roles you would like to install. Select the Hyper-V check box, and then click Next.

    You must choose the Hyper-V Role.

    At this point, you will see the screen that’s shown in Figure B. Basically, this screen just tells you that you may end up needing to enable virtualization at the BIOS level prior to installing the Hyper-V roll. Some servers require this, and others don’t. The screen also tells you that after installation is complete, you can use the Hyper-V Manager to create and configure your virtual machines. The serene also contains a few links that you can use to access more information about the Hyper-V role.

    This screen allows you to access more information about the role that you are installing.

    Click Next, and you will be taken to a screen similar to the one that’s shown in Figure C. As you can see in the figure, your virtual machines require virtual networks in order for them to be able to communicate with other network hosts. Essentially, this screen allows you to choose the physical network adapter that you want to bind the virtual network adapter to.

    You must bind the virtual network adapter to at least one physical network adapter.

    You have the option of choosing multiple network adapters for load balancing, but you also have the option of using a single physical network adapter for all of your virtual machines. When you have made your selection, click Next.

    You should now see a screen confirming that you are about to install the Hyper-V role, and warning you that the server may require a reboot after installing the role. Now, just click the Install button to install the role. The actual amount of time that it takes to install the role varies depending on your server’s performance, but the entire process took about 20 seconds on my server.

    When the installation process completes, click the Close button, and then click Yes when you are prompted to reboot the server. When the server reboots, log back into the server and the Server Manager should automatically load and resume the installation process. After about a minute, you should see a message telling you that Hyper-V has installed successfully. Click Close to complete the wizard.

    How to use the OSI Model to Troubleshoot Networks

    Is your network cable plugged in? (physical)

    Is there a link light on the Ethernet switch and Ethernet NIC? (data-link)

    Do you have an IP address? (network)

    Can you ping your default gateway? (network, testing LAN IP connectivity)

    Do you have DNS server information?

    Can you ping your DNS server? (network, testing IP connectivity)

    Do you have a firewall configured? (network on up to application)

    Can you ping the host you are trying to get to by name? (application, DNS and network WAN IP connectivity)

    What format is the graphic in? Do you have a viewer for that format? (presentation)

    Can your web browser open up another website? (basic application troubleshooting)

    It may turn out that the graphic they were trying to bring up was a .TIFF file and they didn’t have a decoder for that type of file. Thus, this would have been a presentation error issue as the presentation layer deals with formats of graphics & files, as well as compression and encryption.
    Methods of using the OSI model

    I just gave you an example for using the OSI model with a “bottom up” approach to troubleshooting. There are three different ways to use the OSI model:

    Bottom up – troubleshooting by going from the physical layer (layer 1) up to the application layer (layer 7)

    Top down - troubleshooting by going from the application layer (layer 7) down to the physical layer (layer 1)

    Divide and Conquer – in this method, you start with whatever layer you feel is most likely the cause of the problem, then move in whatever direction you feel is the more likely cause of the issue (either up or down the OSI model)

    Wednesday, 21 September 2011

    How to Mount a Windows NTFS file system partition in Linux:

    Open a terminal and type sudo su
    Type fdisk -l (note which partition contains the NTFS file system)
    Type mkdir /media/windows (This directory is where we will access the partition)
    Type mount /dev/hdx1 /media/windows/ -t ntfs -o nls=utf8,umask=0222
    Type cd /media/windows (Moves us to the windows directory)
    Type ls to list the files on the NTFS partition

    Notes: Alternately, you can navigate to the media/windows directory outside of terminal to view the files.

    To unmount the Windows NTFS partiton, from the terminal simply type umount /media/windows/

    Introduction to the OSI Model

    The Open System Interconnection Reference Model (OSI) is a seven layer model that was developed as part of the effort to standardize networking that was started in the late 1970's as part of the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) initiative.
    The Seven Layers of the OSI Model

    The Physical Layer defines the electrical and physical properties and the operating specifications for the devices and media in use. The main job of the Physical Layer is the physical "connection" or attachment of given media and how it is configured (e.g. Token Ring cable, size of cable used, termination in place etc.). In some instances, there may be secondary responsibilities of this layer depending on the device for things such as flow control, modulation/demodulation and so forth. The protocol data unit in use at this level of the OSI model is referred to as a "bit."

    The Data Link Layer provides the practical means to transfer data between network nodes as its main job is to transfer data between network nodes in a wide area network or between nodes on the same local area network segment/subnet. It has the secondary responsibility to detect and correct errors (as permissible) that may take place at the Physical Layer. The protocol data unit in use at this level of the OSI model is referred to as a "frame."

    The Network Layer handles the forwarding and routing of data along logical paths between network connected nodes. In addition to routing and forwarding functions of this layer of the model is also performs addressing, error handling, quality of service control, congestion control and packet sequencing. The protocol data unit in use at this level of the OSI model is referred to as a "packet."

    The Transport Layer is responsible for the reliable, end to end transfer, recovery and flow control of the segments between the nodes. The protocol data unit in use at this level of the OSI model is referred to as a "segment."

    The Session Layer addresses the build up and tear down of the connection sessions between nodes on a network. The protocol data unit in use at this level (and all of the subsequent levels) of the OSI model is referred to simply as "data."

    The Presentation Layer is responsible for taking the data from applications at the application layer and breaking it down for use on the session layer as well as the reverse. It also has the task of formatting the data so that it can be sent to other nodes.

    The Application Layer handles the initial connection of a given application to the network. It is where applications and application type activities such as browsing the web, sending and receiving email and performing file transfers take place. There are applications that wholly reside at the level such as Telnet and FTP.
    Protocol Use at each of the TCP/IP Model Layers

    At each layer of the OSI Model there are associated protocols that are in use.

    These are not fully comprehensive lists but are examples of the more common protocols that are functioning at these different levels of the OSI Model.

    At the Application layer you can find many but some of the more common ones include:
    DHCP - Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol
    FTP - File Transfer Protocol
    HTTP - HyperText Transfer Protocol
    IMAP - IMAP4, Internet Message Access Protocol (version 4)
    LDAP - Lightweight Directory Access Protocol
    LPD - Line Printer Daemon Protocol
    MIME (S-MIME) - Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions and Secure MIME
    NFS - Network File System
    NNTP - Network News Transfer Protocol
    NTP - Network Time Protocol
    POP - POP3, Post Office Protocol (version 3)
    RDP - Remote Desktop Protocol
    RPC - Remote Procedure Call
    SMTP - Simple Mail Transfer Protocol
    SNMP - Simple Network Management Protocol
    SNTP - Simple Network Time Protocol
    SSH - Secure Shell
    TELNET - Terminal Emulation Protocol of TCP/IP
    TFTP - Trivial File Transfer Protocol

    At the Presentation layer you can find these common protocols:
    MIME - Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions
    SSL - Secure Sockets Layer
    TLS - Transport Layer Security
    XDR - eXternal Data Representation

    At the Session layer you can find socket driven connections and session establishment in Transmission Control Protocol (TCP), Session Initiation Protocol (SIP), and Real-time Transport Protocol (RTP).

    You can also find Named Pipe sessions, a protocol in the Server Message Block (SMB) suite as well as the NetBIOS (Network Basic Input/Output System) application Programming Interface (since NetBIOS is not formally a true networking protocol).

    Session Announcement Protocol (SAP) is a protocol for broadcasting multicast session information and it is also found at the Session layer.

    At the Transport layer you can find these common protocols:
    SPX - Sequenced Packet Exchange
    TCP - Transmission Control Protocol
    UDP - User Datagram Protocol
    SCTP - Stream Control Transmission Protocol

    At the Network Layer you can find these common protocols:
    ATP - AppleTalk Transaction Protocol
    IPv4 - Internet Protocol v4
    IPv6 - Internet Protocol v6
    IPX - Internetwork Packet Exchange
    ICMP - Internet Control Message Protocol
    IGMP - Internet Group Management Protocol
    OSPF - Open Shortest Path First

    At the Data Link Layer you can find these common protocols:
    PPP - Point-to-Point Protocol
    PPTP - Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol
    SLIP - Serial Line Internet Protocol
    L2TP - Layer 2 Tunneling Protocol

    Since the Physical Layer is really for defining the physical "connection" or attachment of given media and how it is configured as well as the electrical and physical properties and the operating specifications for the devices and media in use there are no actual TCP/IP common protocols that are in use.

    You can find certain combinations of media and standards at this layer such as RS-232 (Recommended Standard 232) which is the standard for data and control signals connecting between a DTE (Data Terminal Equipment) and a DCE (Data Circuit-terminating Equipment) and Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) which provides digital data transmission over local telephone lines.

    In this article we reviewed the tie in of the OSI Model to the CCNA and Network+ exams as well as took a look at the breakdown of the seven layers of the OSI Model

    We wrapped up with a quick look at some of the protocols that are in use at each of the OSI Model Layers

    Tuesday, 20 September 2011

    Mount an ISO image under Linux

    An ISO image is an archive file (disk image) of an optical disc using a conventional ISO (International Organization for Standardization) format. ISO image files typically have a file extension of .ISO. The name "ISO" is taken from the ISO 9660 file system used with CD-ROM media, but an ISO image can also contain UDF file system because UDF is backward-compatible to ISO 9660.

    You can mount an ISO images via the loop device under Linux. It is possible to specify transfer functions (for encryption/decryption or other purposes) using loop device.

    But, how do you mount an ISO image under Linux? You need to use mount command as follows:

    Procedure to mount ISO images under Linux

    1) You must login as a root user, if not root user then switch to root user using following command:
    $ su -

    2) Create the directory i.e. mount point:
    # mkdir -p /mnt/disk

    3) Use mount command as follows to mount iso file called disk1.iso:
    # mount -o loop disk1.iso /mnt/disk

    4) Change directory to list files stored inside an ISO image:
    # cd /mnt/disk
    # ls -l

    Convert an IP Address from Decimal to Binary Form

    1. The first, and probably most important step, is to put down this row of values:
      128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1
      In order to remember these values start with the number 1, go from right to left, and double that number seven times. For example, start with 1 on the right side. For your next number, double the 1 (1 x 2 = 2). So, 2 is your next number (remembering to go from right to left). For your third number, double the 2 (2 x 2 = 4); to continue the sequence, double the 4 (4 x 2 = 8). Repeat this process until you’ve doubled your original number, seven times. The key to this is that every single one of the values we put in that row are going to have either number 1 or number 0 assigned to it. To convert the IP address we will take that string of numbers and start from left to right this time. For each value we ask this question: “Can I subtract this value from the decimal remaining?” If the answer is “NO” then you put a “0” under the binary value, and if the answer is “YES” then you put “1” there.  
    2. We take the IP address: and start with the first part, which is 154.
      1. Question: Can I subtract 128 from 154? Answer: YES. So we assign 1 to 128.
        128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1
      2. Question: Can I subtract 64 from 26? Answer: NO. So we assign 0 to 64.
        128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1
        1 0            
      3. Question: Can I subtract 32 from 26? Answer: NO. So we assign 0 to 32.
        128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1
        1 0 0          
      4. Question: Can I subtract 16 from 26? Answer: YES. So we assign 1 to 16.
        128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1
        1 0 0 1        
      5. That will give us a remainder of 10. (26-16=10). Question: Can I subtract 8 from 10? Answer: YES. So we assign 1 to 8.
        128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1
        1 0 0 1 1      
      6. That will give us a remainder of 2. (10-8=2). Question: Can I subtract 4 from 2? Answer: NO. So we assign 0 to 4.
        128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1
        1 0 0 1 1 0    
      7. Question: can I subtract 2 from 2? Answer: YES. So we assign 1 to 2.
        128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1
        1 0 0 1 1 0 1  
      8. That will give us a remainder of 0. So for the rest of the values in our row, we can assign 0.
        128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1
        1 0 0 1 1 0 1 0
        So now we know that a decimal number 154 is 10011010 converted to binary form. To double check, we take the values assigned with 1 and add them together: 128+16+8+2=154  
    3. Our next number in the IP address is: 31. So we start with a question from step 2 again
      1. Can I subtract 128 from 31?
        128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1
      2. Can I subtract 64 from 31?
        128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1
        0 0            
      3. Can I subtract 32 from 31?
        128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1
        0 0 0          
      4. Can I subtract 16 from 31?
        128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1
        0 0 0 1        
      5. Can I subtract 8 from 15 (remember, it’s the remainder)?
        128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1
        0 0 0 1 1      
      6. Can I subtract 4 from 7?
        128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1
        0 0 0 1 1 1    
      7. Can I subtract 2 from 3?
        128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1
        0 0 0 1 1 1 1  
      8. Can I subtract 1 from 1?
        128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1
        0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1
        So the decimal number 31 is 00011111 converted to binary form. To double check: 16+8+4+2+1=31
    4. Next number is 16. I will perform the conversion in one step now.
      128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1
      0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0
      So the decimal number 16 is 00010000 converted to binary form.  
    5. Next number is 13.
      128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1
      0 0 0 0 1 1 0 1
      So the decimal number 13 is 00001101 in binary form. To double check: 8+4+1=13
    So the IP address of has its binary form equivalent of:

    Monday, 19 September 2011

    Configure On-Demand Routing (ODR) on Cisco routers

    ODR is used to allow hub routers to accept prefix information, distributed via Cisco Discovery Protocol (CDP) , from spoke routers.

    On the hub router, enter this command
    router odr

    Also, routes can be controlled with a distribute-list:
    distribute-list 10 in
    distribute-list 20 out
    assuming the referenced ACLs exist, otheriwse no routes are accepted or sent.

    Since the prefix updates are carried on CDP, ODR updates can be controlled, in true sledgehammer fashion, by disabling CDP on an interface:interface serial 0/0
    no cdp enable

    For ODR to work properly, all dynamic routing protocols need to be disabled on the spoke routers.

    Windows: Get a List of All Running Processes from the Command Line

    If you need to get a quick list of running processes on your computer or another computer on your network, you can use the Windows Instrumentation command-line interface (WMIC) to quickly generate this. You can even generate a text file so you can print the list if need be. This Tech-Recipe applies to Windows XP Professional, Windows Vista, Windows Server 2003 and Windows Server 2008.

    1. Open a command prompt.

    2. Execute the following command:
    wmic process get description,executablepath

    To list the processes on another computer, execute the following command:
    wmic /node: process get description,executablepath

    Where computer name is the name of the desired computer.

    to generate a textfile, execute the following (make sure to change the output path to your liking):

    Your computer:
    wmic /output:d:\process.txt process get description,executablepath

    Another computer:
    wmic /node: /output:d:\process.txt process get description,executablepath

    Your results will look something like this:

    Sunday, 18 September 2011

    Configure IGRP routing on a Cisco router

    IGRP is a proprietary routing protocol designed by Cisco and can only be used in a homogeneous network of Cisco routers. IGRP is a distance-vector protocol that considers delay, bandwidth and other optional parameters to determine the best path.

    IGRP uses an autonomous system number parameter in the configuration. All routers with the same autonomous system number will share router advertisements and participate. This number is arbitrary but must be the same on all routers within the autonomous system.

    To configure a router to participate in IGRP routing within autonomous system 5 and advertise routing information about the network, use:

    conf t
    router igrp 5

    Windows: Use WMIC to Start or Stop a Service from the Command Line

    By using the Windows Instrumentation command-line interface (WMIC), you can easily start or stop a service without having to use the GUI. Once you become familiar with the steps, it will be much faster than having to access the Services applet in the Administrative Tools. This Tech-Recipe applies to Windows XP Professional, Windows Vista, Windows Server 2003 and Windows Server 2008.

    1. Open a command prompt.

    2. Input WMIC and press Return. You will see a prompt that looks like this:

    3. At the new prompt, execute the following command:
    service get caption,start,startmode

    This will generate a list of all available services and their current status.

    4. To start a service,go to the prompt and execute the following command:
    service where caption="" call startservice

    where service caption is the caption of the service you wish to start (use the exact caption provided by the previously generated list).

    For example, if I were wanting to start the Terminal Services service, my command would look like this:
    service where caption="Terminal Services" call startservice

    5. When prompted, input y to confirm that you wish to start the service and press Return.

    The service will be started.

    6. To stop a service,go to the prompt and execute the following command:
    service where caption="" call stopservice

    where service caption is the caption of the service you wish to stop (use the exact caption provided by the previously generated list).

    For example, if I were wanting to stop the Terminal Services service, my command would look like this:
    service where caption="Terminal Services" call stopservice

    7. When prompted, input y to confirm that you wish to stop the service and press Return.

    The service will be stopped.

    Saturday, 17 September 2011

    Configure Cisco router as a basic DHCP server

    Using a Cisco router as a DHCP server can simplify a network configuration by cetralizing DHCP services in a large network or decentralizing DHCP services to the endpoint routers at satellite locations. The ease of remote management of Cisco-based DHCP services is a great advantage.

    conf t
    service dhcp
    ip dhcp pool
    ip dhcp excluded-address
    ip dhcp excluded-address

    This example shows a Cisco router configuration as a basic DHCP server in the network. The DHCP options implemented are default-router (DHCP option 3) and dns-server (DHCP option 6). Two DNS servers are configured. With the excluded-address commands, using only ip addresses between will be available for client use.

    Windows: Service Managing Through Command Line

    How can I start/stop/pause Windows Services from command Line in win-2000,Win-XP & win-2003

    To start a service follow the steps:
    1. Go to START—->RUN
    2. Type CMD—–> Click on Enter
    3. Net Start to Start a Service
    Eg:- net start telnet
    4. Net Stop to Stop a Service
    Eg:- net stop telnet
    5. Net Pause to Pause a Service
    Eg:- net pause telnet
    6. Net Continue to Continue a Service
    Eg:- net continue telnet

    Friday, 16 September 2011

    Cisco HSRP – Redundant gateway router configuration

    HSRP stands for Hot Standby Router Protocol, and what it does is create a virtual IP address (which hosts will use as the gateway address). This virtual address is free to move between configured routers as needed.

    Some background for this config:

    Local Subnet:
    Desired gateway address:

    Both routers and their hosts must be on the same layer 2 network.

    On Router A:
    ip address
    standby 1 ip
    standby 1 preempt
    standby 1 priority 110
    standby 1 authentication myrouter
    standby 1 track serial 0/0

    The priority number determines which router will normally have the virtual IP address, higher numbers win.

    The track statement tells the router to give up the virtual address if the serial 0/0 interface goes down.

    Router B:
    ip address
    standby 1 ip
    standby 1 preempt
    standby 1 priority 100
    standby 1 authentication myrouter
    standby 1 track serial 0/1

    That’s all there is to it! Router A will host the virtual IP address, and if the router or it’s serial port goes down, Router B will assume control of the virtual address, and traffic will flow over it’s serial link.


    The BCD registry file controls which operating system installation starts and how long the boot manager waits before starting Windows. Basically, it’s like the Boot.ini file in earlier versions of Windows. If you need to edit it, the easiest way is to use the Startup And Recovery tool from within Vista. Just follow these steps:

    1. Click Start. Right-click Computer, and then click Properties.

    2. Click Advanced System Settings.

    3. On the Advanced tab, under Startup and Recovery, click Settings.

    4. Click the Default Operating System list, and edit other startup settings. Then, click OK.

    Same as Windows XP, right? But you’re probably not here because you couldn’t find that dialog box. You’re probably here because Windows Vista won’t start. In that case, you shouldn’t even worry about editing the BCD. Just run Startup Repair, and let the tool do what it’s supposed to.

    If you’re an advanced user, like an IT guy, you might want to edit the BCD file yourself. You can do this by using the command-line BCDEdit tool from within Windows Vista. If you can boot into another operating system, you can probably run it from there, too. Here’s the help output:

    C:Userstnorthru>bcdedit /?

    BCDEDIT – Boot Configuration Data Store Editor

    The Bcdedit.exe command-line tool modifies the boot configuration data store.
    The boot configuration data store contains boot configuration parameters and
    controls how the operating system is booted. These parameters were previously
    in the Boot.ini file (in BIOS-based operating systems) or in the nonvolatile
    RAM entries (in Extensible Firmware Interface-based operating systems). You can
    use Bcdedit.exe to add, delete, edit, and append entries in the boot
    configuration data store.

    For detailed command and option information, type bcdedit.exe /? . For
    example, to display detailed information about the /createstore command, type:

    bcdedit.exe /? /createstore

    For an alphabetical list of topics in this help file, run “bcdedit /? TOPICS”.

    Commands that operate on a store
    /createstore Creates a new and empty boot configuration data store.
    /export Exports the contents of the system store to a file. This file
    can be used later to restore the state of the system store.
    /import Restores the state of the system store using a backup file
    created with the /export command.

    Commands that operate on entries in a store
    /copy Makes copies of entries in the store.
    /create Creates new entries in the store.
    /delete Deletes entries from the store.

    Run bcdedit /? ID for information about identifiers used by these commands.

    Commands that operate on entry options
    /deletevalue Deletes entry options from the store.
    /set Sets entry option values in the store.

    Run bcdedit /? TYPES for a list of datatypes used by these commands.
    Run bcdedit /? FORMATS for a list of valid data formats.

    Commands that control output
    /enum Lists entries in the store.
    /v Command-line option that displays entry identifiers in full,
    rather than using names for well-known identifiers.
    Use /v by itself as a command to display entry identifiers
    in full for the ACTIVE type.

    Running “bcdedit” by itself is equivalent to running “bcdedit /enum ACTIVE”.

    Commands that control the boot manager
    /bootsequence Sets the one-time boot sequence for the boot manager.
    /default Sets the default entry that the boot manager will use.
    /displayorder Sets the order in which the boot manager displays the
    multiboot menu.
    /timeout Sets the boot manager time-out value.
    /toolsdisplayorder Sets the order in which the boot manager displays
    the tools menu.

    Commands that control Emergency Management Services for a boot application
    /bootems Enables or disables Emergency Management Services
    for a boot application.
    /ems Enables or disables Emergency Management Services for an
    operating system entry.
    /emssettings Sets the global Emergency Management Services parameters.

    Command that control debugging
    /bootdebug Enables or disables boot debugging for a boot application.
    /dbgsettings Sets the global debugger parameters.
    /debug Enables or disables kernel debugging for an operating system

    Virtual Server 2005: How To Configure the Virtual DHCP Server

    Instead of configuring a virtual machine as a DHCP server, you can use the virtual DHCP server for your virtual network.

    To configure the virtual DHCP server:
    1. Open the Virtual Server Administration Website.
    2. Under Virtual Networks, selectConfigure and then click the virtual network.
    3. In Virtual Network Properties, click DHCP server.
    4. Check the Enabled checkbox, then configure the necessary DHCP server options.
    5. Click OK.

    How can VMware Integrated Containers be useful in real life scenario

    What is VIC: VIC - vSphere Integrated Containers enables IT, teams, to seamlessly run traditional workloads and container workloads ...